Alfred A. Benitz Page last modified:

Mistolar & Los Palmares

Calchaquí, Santa Fé — 1897
(age: 39 years old)

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Though Alfred did not take his customary extended holiday during the hot months of December and January, he was often absent from Los Palmares for several weeks at a time, in total about 145 days:
♦ February 5-22: Rosario & La California;
♦ Feb. 28-March 17: San Pedro Grande, taking delivery of Obligado's livestock;
♦ April 3-8: La California & Rosario: formation of Benitz Hnos.;
♦ May 19-June 18: hunting trip north Santa Fé;
♦ June 24-August 4: Rincon de Landa, B.A., & La California;
♦ Oct.14 - Nov.11: La California, Rosario, Santa Fé, San Cristobal;
♦ Dec.18-27: Alejandra & Carmen.

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Camps: (see maps)

Rodeos: Mentioned at Los Palmares & Guampita with partial counts.  Alfred did not take a full inventory during 1897:

Workmen listed:

Production - cattle sent down to La California: total: 6,633 (approx.) In addition, Alfred sold locally to cattle buyers; which we have not researched.

Indian thefts:  The indians prowled around, causing panic, stealing livestock when they could.  Alfred did not partake in any pursuits, which generally failed to recover stock.  He lost at least 50 horses from Los Palmares.

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Transcription Notes: The day-book has been transcribed as written, without intentional corrections to spelling or grammar.  We standardised the date format, adding the month where missing (abbreviated to 3 letters).  Anything else we added or corrected is enclosed within [square brackets, with our comments in italics.]  (Transcribed by: Michael Mohr-Bell.)

Reference pages

Written in English by Alfred, Donkin, & others, the day-book is full of Spanglish terms as well as many other terms unfamiliar to us today.  To assist with names (people & places), maps, measures, currencies, and Spanglish terminology, we have created a set of Reference pages.  The reference pages open in a separate tab / window making them available in parallel to the diary (i.e. this window).

1897 - Qtr.1

[Click to download Q1 page images (1½ mb PDF file)]

January, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

— 3 Jan. —

Sunday.  A. came back from Calchaqui at noon.  Rained little yesterday and quite hard today.  Had quite a fiesta in Calchaqui on 1st  Ramayon was there, ‘carne con cuero’, corrida sortija, baile etc.  Capt. Alvarez (jefe San Cristobal) stopped here last night on way from Ft. Inca to San Cristobal with 14 soldiers who stopped at Ft. Union.  Says only 15 indians had been seen there
Elias came back from down south, bringing 6 potros (Morenos mark) 2 plow horses, toruna, 2 redomones ~ & potrita alasan for Ramayon.–
Butchered cow today ~.  Dionisio Godoy and gente of Fontana and Nicolas Jäller turned up for rodeo.  Alvarez sent telegram to Calchaqui.

— 4 Jan. —

Put on algarrobal rodeo for the apartadores, and capared some toritos.  No cattle on Salado rodeo in afternoon.  Fine day.

— 5 Jan. —

Butchered cow.  Had on rodeo Estancia in morning about 1400 head.  gente parted and afterwards we ‘disembechared’ and capared toritos.  In afternoon had on new rodeo ‘del medio’ about 3000 head.  Parted & disembechard.  10 novillos tamberas parted so far.  Fine forenoon.  Stormy afternoon.

— 6 Jan. —

Had on rodeo Mistolar in morning.  Apartadores parted and we disembechared and capared about 50 toritos.  In afternoon had on rodeo Loma and apartadores parted & we disembechared  Sent sinch cart to Doña Angela to bring Jacinta from Martins.  Fine warm day.–

— Jan 7 / 97 —

Had on rodeo Tapera, 5000 head – apartadores parted and left with about 100 animals.  Disembechared and capared afterwards.  Hot day.  Sent letters with Bargas to C. Gays. Butchered cow ~.

— 8 Jan. —

Tomas & Checho went to Calchaqui with tropilla picasos taking alasan tostado (orechano) for Ramayon, oscura ~ for Carlos Rohr and colorado ~ for Alfredo Almeida. (presents) Peones went to help juntar yeguada at Baldomeros.  Rained slowly this forenoon & fine fresh afternoon.  Cornelio came from down south.  lost galgo in Calchaqui.  Fixed up paral.

— 9 Jan. —

Went to Baldomeros puesto and counted the mares – 371 & 11 outside & 11 tame ones of Baldomero, 6 potros M & 1 madrina – total 400 marked & 76 orechano colts.  These include the redomones Elias was breaking in.–
Miguel left with Wenceslao, Pato, Rubio, & Zarza for Barra & Media Luna to part.  Tomas & Checho came back from Calchaqui with Ortiz & young grey hound pup from Petrie.  It was a fine warm day.

— 10 Jan. —

Sunday.  Was over at Martin’s to see about parting novillos on Friday.  George was there.  Butchered cow ~ in afternoon.  Fine warm day.–

— Jan 11./ 97 —

Cart of Zalazars came bringing things that Hilario Avalos bro’t as far as paso.– Trunk of King’s, press & table, sail & mast.  Wendroth’s present (Barometre etc.) and brazo of the machine.  Sent cart to Calchaqui for provisions etc.– Cut rest of alfa this forenoon and this afternoon put keel on boat.  It was a hot day.

— 12 Jan. —

Recorrered up towards laguna Dulce.  Bellos was here to offer his novillado.  G. Martin here & stops the night.–
Miguel came back from the Barra and Media Luna.  parted 17 vacunas from M.L. and 12 yeguariza from Barra.  Got in the alfa in afternoon.  Very hot day.

— 13 Jan. —

A. was over at Bellos and had a look at his novillada.  Traded for 27.00 3 yrs and upwards.  guess will get about 150.  Rained until about 3 oclock, slow gentle rain.– Bro’t in rest of alfa and covered it before the rain.  Bro’t load of wood in morning.  G. Martin left in afternoon.

— 14 Jan. —

Fine day and strong south wind.– Butchered a cow ~ and parted out the unnecessary animals in potrero and capared the toritos in corral, about 20.– The men came together to part the tropa atbout Martin’s, Gay & Defagot, & Bellos.–J

— 15 Jan. —

Began parting troop for down south.  Parted 236 from Martin’s @ $28.00 he gave a vaquilla.  Lock in at Gay & Defagot’s.  J. Martin’s here for night on way to Calchaqui.  Fine day.  14 men with horses working.

— 16 Jan. —

Parting novillado at Gay & Defagot rodeo Salado.  Parted 197 more or less by 11 o’clock.  Send J. Martin’s novillos to Lucero to take care of.  Parted also 27 animals of Estancia and passed them on to potrero.  It was a fine day.– J. Martin here on way to Calchaqui.

— 20 Jan. —

Came back at noon from Los Molles with King had entregared the tropa to Elias 941 novillos.  Had parted from Gay & Defagot 503 novillos @ 28.00 & they gave 5 vaquillas.  26 novillos from Jose Paz @ 25.00  31 novillos from Basilio Alvarez @ 22.00 and 144 novillos @ 27.00.
on the 17th parted other rodeo of G & Defagot.  18th at Bellos & Basilio Alvarez & 19th entregared to Elias.  Gave Basilio Alvarez $10.00 on account.  Gave Elias 60.00 gastos on road & gave Pintos 40.00 to get out guias.  Rather good troop.  Novillo overo negro salpicado gde. of Casimiros mark stopped at Lucero got into monte. also vaquilla.  Tropa took 2 vaq. ~ to eat on road.
Very hot weather last week and had heavy rain at Molle but none here.  Butchered Monday 18th.  Had on rodeo Salado yesterday afternoon, and this afternoon rodeo Lomo.–
Elias took 11 men in troop viz. – Braulio Ledesma, Caseros, Sandoval, T Bergara, Cornelio, Nic Sanchez, Duarte, Olguin, Chamorro, A Pintos Velasques.–
Mail left for Calchaqui.

— Jan 21 / 97 —

Had on rodeo Estancia in morning and Palmar in afternoon.  Parted out 36 old cows & calves and put them into potrero, also began parting novillitos negras for señueleros.  Butchered cow.  Stormy weather but no rain.– Mikes woman came back.–

— 22 Jan. —

Had on rodeo Mistolar and parted out 58 old cows & 6 senueleros mostly with calves.– and put them into potrero, parted also some more negritos for senueleros.  It was another beastly sweaty stormy day.  Also capared about 50 toritos & disembechared.

— 23 Jan. —

Had on rodeo del Medio and parted out 18 more old cows, 3 lame novillos, 1 tambera novillo, 3 tambera cows and 6 more señueleros.  Disembechared and capared about 25 bulls.  G. Martin & Italian sailor hunter from San Cristobal were here.  Damasio reports on the night of the 21stst – 12 indians or gauchos cut the fence in two parts near the Guampita passing southward.  Report a comision from Calchaqui at Julian Zanches to look after tracks.  It was a very hot day.—

— 24 Jan. —

Sunday.  A & King went to Felis and Juan’s puestos to see whether the indians were about yet.  It seems the indians had gone back up north again, leaving one of their horses dead near Damasio’s puesto.  Casimiro Gay - & Basilio Alvarez were are here tonight.  Pd. Basilio Alvarez $500 Cash and an order on Marty for $172.00 and wrote to Marty to send a giro to Alfonso Gay for $14084. for 503 novillos bo’t of him @ 28.00,– Doña Isidora (cook) left again for Baldomero’s puesto and Doña Bernardo begins to cook again.  Butchered cow.

— 25 Jan. —

Had on rodeo Tapera and parted 7 old cows 1 lame novillo 4 senueleros & capared & disembechared.  Heavy rain stopped work, but no rain here at Estancia at all.  Casimiro Gay & Basilio Alvarez left after siesta.  Mail came.  Frakes went to sell his feathers.– Took sail boat “Pioneer” to Laguna Palmar & had successful trial.  [See photo, Alfred’s Album 1, p.9]  Weather stormy but no rain.—

— 26 Jan. —

Cut the horns off the new Senueleros 28 – Parted out the toritos from potrero in afternoon and locked in corral.  Alfredo, King & G. Martin had sail in “Pioneer” in laguna Palmar, but wind was very erratic.  Hot day.

— 27 Jan. —

Capared 22 toritos which were in potrero (had been parted out at Casimiros).  Nothing xtra going on.  Cloudy day and looks like rain, but strong south wind.  Butchered cow ~.

— 28 Jan. —

Hard south wind all day, and clear weather again.  Cut old piece of alfa in afternoon.  Miguel recorrered down to Vargas.—
Indians had stolen the horses (11) of Rubio Ernestos near Paso Mistolar

— 29 Jan. —

A. and King took a turn over to Damasios, Julian Zanches, and Juan’s puesto and were away all day.  Juan Fillian was here since noon and stops the night.  Arranged accounts with him for cattle bo’t from him.  Gave him a giro for $1000. and 331 to his a/c to Pastorelli $2345.15 owe him still.) he had an account here of $213.95 which is arreglared.  It was quite a cold morning and cool day and strong south wind.  Got in alfa in afternoon.

— 30 Jan. —

Butchered a black cow from potrero.  Nothing xtra going on.  Had a sail on boat in afternoon.  Fine day.

— 31 Jan. —

Sunday.  Nothing going on.  Mail came.  Fine weather but getting dry.

February, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

— Feb 1 —

Had on rodeo Loma (1400) disembechared and capared about 30 sucking calves.– Stormy day but no rain.  Seca seems to be coming on.  Frakes came back from B.A.  Sold his feathers for about $870.00.  Peon of Guiberts bro’t picaso redomon & barosa cohudita from estancia Irionda.–

— 2 Feb. —

Had on Mistolar rodeo about 4000 and capared & disembechared.  Stormy day but no rain.  Had sail on Palmar in afternoon.  Sent Checho to Calchaqui.—

— 3 Feb. —

Had on rodeo Tapera, about 5000.  Disembechared and capared about 50 toritos.  Hot dry day N.E. wind.  2 Santiaguenos from Tostado stop on way past.  A. goes tomorrow to Calchaqui & perhaps south.  Butchered black cow.

— Feb 23 / 97 —

A. came back from down south today.–
On the 4th slept at Calchaqui.

5th went to see Guiberts cattle and also slept at Calchaqui.

6th Took train to Rosario (night from Santa Fé to Rosario.  Very hot dusty day.

7th Slept Rosario Hotel Gran Central met Marjory & drove out to Bulwards in afternoon (Sunday).

8.  Slept Rosario.  Was at Loaders to have teeth fixed.

9   California Tuesday. Very hot.

10.   "  Wed    "  "

11.   "  Thurs    "  "

12.   "  Friday   Rain

13.   "  Sat    dance New peones quarters.

14.   "  Sunday J. [likely: John] left for B.A

15.  Rosario   Gran Hotel Central

16.   "   "   "   Dentist

17.   "   "   "   "

18.  LaCalifornia

19.  J. came back from B.A. where he had been with his wife to R. Agars wedding
bo’t Manuel Obligados Testamentaria

cattle_ { 1000 head @ 13.70 } todo lo
 4787 { 3737   "   " 13.80 } que pisa

recd 4228
     90 yeguarizo 4.70

not received = (19 caballos m/o menos 20)
     4 yeguas mansos @ 11.00

left La California & took night train from Rosario to Santa Fé.
Bro’t up Theodore Johnnies ñinera

20. Slept at Calchaqui (Saturday).  Rain.

21  "   " Vera

22. Had marks archivado at Vera, and took out papelatas for peones.  Saw Anastasia Aguilar and arrang. with him to tropear from San Pedro to south.  Slept at Calchaqui.  Rain.

23. Arrived at Palmar, found camp in satisfactory condition.  Cant find my tropilla of oscuras (yegua baya.– Hot day.

— 24 Feb. —

Had on rodeo potrero and took out all milch cows and unnecessary animals.  Marked Frakes calves 17 and senalared about 17 small ones.  Sent to look again for tropilla oscuras (yegua baya) and found fence cut near corner west of lake and track of about 40 yeguarizos going out.  Indians supposed to be.  Got in alfa which was cut day before yesterday.  Butchered cow ~.

— 25 Feb. —

Miguel, King, Ewaldino and Juan left to follow up the indians who had stolen here to see where they had gone to.  Wenceslado harrowed the recently cut alfa and in afternoon went to take Ewaldinos place to repuntar up Palmar.  Two carts bro’t leña.– Report Calchaqui very pantanosa.  Pedro Gomez was here looking for work.  Retomoso bro’t mail from Calchaqui & telegram from Johnnie.  It was a very bad day with strong hot north wind and in evening had storm & little rain.

— 26 Feb. —

Had heavy rain last night and was murky hot day & looks like more rain.  A. was up at Martin’s.  Checho came back from Baldomeros says only the animals missing are the tropilla baya (7 horses & 1 madrina, 5 redomones of Elias’ taming, 2 mares Felix tamed, 3 chucara mares & 1 potro – 19 total, – but xpect more animals are stolen.  Drained corral, charqueared, stored maiz etc.—

— Feb 27 / 97 —

Peones filled up pantano in corral.– Miguel & co came back in evening from following up indian rastra.  followed up to isleta about 2 leagues south of Berlie’s tapera west of Las Chilcas.  The indians had killed alasana mare there.  Track was of about 30 – no small animals.  G. Martin here.  Go to Calchaqui tomorrow.—

March, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

—— March 17 ——

Alfredo came back last night late from San Pedro Gde with tropilla & Checho.– Entregared the cattle.
On 28th went to Calchaqui.  Carnaval Sunday.  G. Martin went along.  Gay time.

1st A & G. Martin went to see Gaillat at San Pedro: he had not received order yet to reculutar [recolectar] cattle.

2.- Carnaval again at Calchaqui baile at night.

3d. Vicente Collins came from B.A. and went to San Pedro.  Told gente would be no work until 8th Fearful hot.

4th Nice rain.  Johnnie came by train.

5th Went to San Pedro with Johnnie and stop there.  Gente from San Pedro left for reculutas.  Fine weather.

6th Had picnic out at rinconado San Pedro and fished etc.  A. Obligado arrived.

7.- Took ride out banado, bathed etc.

8.- Picnic ants out in bañado entregared sheep to Clusellas.

9.- A. went to Calchaqui to funeral of Hilario Avalos.  Hot weather.

10. Another hot day.  San Pedro.

11. Parared south rodeo and rodeo Banado both in Generals camp for neighbors and for Gaillat.

12. Parared rodeo by potrero for neighbors y Gaillat.

13. Parared rodeo Estancia from neighbors & Gaillat, latter has a pastoreo of nearly 1000 head of cattle.

14. Began receiving vattel.  Made cos

Received the mares from Obligado 90 at 4.70 and 4 tame mares @ 11.00 countermarked and put our ~ mark on them.  Was going to send them out to Los Palmares but next night had to leave them loose again as could get no one to take them out again.

14. Began receiving the cattle.  had made convenio we should take the cattle in General’s camp, and a cut from another rodeo.  Put on banado rodeo first with all gente, gave a lot of work as there were so many mañero novillos.– Drove the rodeo close to the gate and counted them after a great deal of work as over 150 calves escaped and some big novillos.  counted 2146 of which 354 were calves.  Took them outside of gate and then came back for other rodeo.– Also had a deal of work.  counted 1764 of which 282 were calves.– and then drove the two tropas separately to Morsillas place.  Anastasio Aguiar taking charge of 1st troop and Pedro Gomez of second troop.  Very hot day.  About 60 of our men working and 20 of San Pedro.—

15  Put on Estancia rodeo first and counted them 2450 and then juntared the cattle which had escaped troop before delivery in South potrero and counted them 114 and then went to rodeo by potrero and counted them 1975 making a total of cattle in San Pedro of 8449 and 10 senueleros.–  ½ = 4224 and 4 senueleros 4228 – we had received 3910 so we had to take a cut of 314 and 4 senueleros.  Got a very good cut mostly large cattle and 50 calves included.  Locked them in corral for night.  Had to pay capataz Morcillo $20.00 damages for corral last night and $10.00 to juntar the 5 animals left last year by J.Gomez.  Made ‘Carne con cuero’.– Elias takes his troop to incorporer with Anastasios and entregars to him with the gente necessary.  Paid Anastasio Aguiar 150 for xpenses, P. Gomez 165.00, Elias to pay his gente 200.

— 16 Mar. —

Went to Calchaqui in morning first thing and also Johnnie, Vicente Collins, Adolfo Obligado and Gaillat.  Had some trouble to get certificate but afterwards arreglared it.– Got guia $180.70, Johnnie left in train for home also Collins & Obligado for B.A.  Mrs Martin arrived from B.A. and tried to get carriage for her.  Left Calchaqui 6 P.M. and arrived here 1 A.M. Fearful hot day.

— 17 Mar. —

Found camp looking very dry here, Vargas began plowing for alfa.  Wenceslado & Zarza went to bring up two novillos of Zalazar (who had left on 1st of month).  We had countermarked two bulls of ours ~ in xchange.– rosillo & mala-cara bragado.  Fearful hot weather.  J. Martin & King went to Calchaqui to buy horses.

— 18 Mar. —

Dionisio Collins came at noon and stops the night.  Wants to sell Michelots novillos.  Fearful hot day.  Began cutting alfa in afternoon.  Benancia hauling timber leña to south ensenada.– Got capon from other side Salado.

— 19 Mar. —

Had drizzle all forenoon.  Had on rodeo Loma (disembechar & butcher)  J. Martin & mother & King came out in carriage from Calchaqui (Guiberts) stop night.  Cool weather.

— 20 Mar. —

Miguel left to campiar some horses ~ in biscachera camp.  Collins also left.  Cut a little alfa, machine broke.  Butchered in afternoon.  Fine weather – heavy fog in forenoon.  Sent two pair of spurs to Lae, & Wilson of San Cristobal.  J. Fellon was here paid him $100.00 on a/c. – Butchered cow ~.

— 21 Mar. —

Sunday.  Elias came back.  Had entregared 308 San Pedro to Anastia Aguiar on the 19th in Biscachera camp.  Loaded up cart with 480 varillas & 50 torniquetes for alambrador Fernando Gay to finish the estero Guampita.– Elias had $259 xpenses with peones etc.– Fine hot day.  Lake gone down considerable.  Salado high.  J. Martin here for night on way to Calchaqui with Volante.

— March 22 / 97 —

Men ‘huntaring’ alfa.  Wenceslado “repuntared” cattle outside of fence.– Miguel came back from ‘Biscachera’ camp.  found oscura ~ at the Sergentas [Sargentos ?] Biscachera.  Will have the tostado there on Friday.– Paid Bellos a cheque on Marty for $1000.00.  Gave Miguel [Fraire, mayordomo] notice to quit end of his year.– Hot north wind.  King was over at Guampitos to see the alambrador.–

— 23 Mar. —

Getting in alfalfa.  A & King were down at puesto Damasio.  Bro’t up indian head.  Some 3 men in horse cart came on way to Calchaqui from Constancia & stop night.  Domingo and Elias hauling palms for fixing manga at Ensenada del sur [raceway at southern enclosure].——
[Inserted above last:] Arranged with Miguel to stay on.

— 24 Mar. —

Butchered a cow ~ – Got in rest of alfalfa.– Fearful hot day.  Miguel recorrered down south to lower puestos.  Nicolas Dayer taking 2nd troop of his vaquillas to his new beyond the Calchaqui.  Report Indians stole about 40 horses near Campo Carancha.

— 25 Mar. —

A was up at Martin’s.  King went to Calchaqui to meet J. Martin to buy some horses for his mount.  Poisoned hides, & drownded ants.  Peicho Villalba was here to see about liquidating his accounts on going to Paraguay.–
Threatning weather & south began blowing looks like seca.

— 26 Mar. —

Fearful hot day.  Miguel recorrered up north this forenoon.  Cutting leña for marcacion.  Camp getting dry.  J. Martin came back from Calchaqui with King bringing tropilla of tuviano horses.

— 27 Mar. —

Another very hot day.  Varga plowing.  Segundo came & move to fence near Frakes to keep cattle from going outside.  A. goes tomorrow to San Cristobal & also to receive Peicho’s cows.

1897 - Qtr.2

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April, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

— April 1 / 97 —

A.  came back from San Cristobal slept last night at Los Muelles.– On the 28th (Sunday) Received the animals from (vacunos) from Peicho 48 @ 14.00.  countermarked & marked them xcept 5 small calves.  Gave him a giro on Marty.  Slept Sunday night at Robsons & Monday & Tuesday at San Cristobal.  Made arrangements to go out on xpediton with gefe (Capt Alvarez).  he is going to Santa Fé today and on return is coming here to arrange details.  Paid Martin’s bill in San Cristobal & gave a giro on Marty 339.55m/n  Martin Marked yesterday 265 calves.– Rec’d telegram for me to go home to see Bill & Johnnie. 

— 2 Apr.  —

Had a little rain last and this morning early but not enough to juntar water.  No work this afternoon.  Alfredo goes down south tomorrow.–

— 9 Apr.  —

Alfredo came back last night about midnight from down south.  Had left here on the 3d. and took train same day and reached Rosario 8 A.M. on the 4th too late to go to Las Rosas as train had gone off the track in night.  Mother, Johnnie & William & wife came in to Rosario on night of 4 th also Mr & Mrs Shreiber and on monday 5 th made out papers & signed.  Mother & Josephine renouncing all right to all our propertys xcept our N. American property at Fort Ross.  Afterwards Johnnie, William and myself signed partnership papers for 5 years.–  On the night of the 5th Johnnie & A. went to Cañada de Gomez and drove to La California reaching there about 10.30 P.M.  The two tropas from San Pedro had arrived there on 4 th & 5 th and on the 6 th we classified them through the brete into 4 lots & also counted them.  808 big novillos & 3 yr bulls.  537 small novillos & bulls.  1510 cows.  788 vaquillas.  438 were calves.  Total 3647.  333 big cattle short masmenos  Arreglared with the tropero gente on the 7th and left again in afternoon for Los Palmares.  Saw mother & Todd in Rosario, and left same night for Santa Fé and in morning of yesterday 8th for Calchaqui and came out in night.– Had bro’t $2000 for Harteneck & Cia.–
Miguel had given rodeo general to all the neighbors, all came except Casimiro Gay, but only parted about 50 animals.  Weather had been drizzly for some days but no rain to speak of.  Lots of indian signs about.  Weather very muggy & hot and looks like rain.  Men coming together for marcacion tomorrow.  Froidevano & wife came yesterday and began work today @ $60.00 per month.

— 10 Apr. —

Went out to recojer the Palmar rodeo but it began drizzling and let cattle go again.  It was a fearful hot night until about 1 A.M. when a strong wind came up and drizzled various times today.  G. Martin is here.  Good many men here for marking.  Butchered cow from rodeo.

— 11 Apr. —

Began marcacion.–
Recojered the Algarrobal rodeo and after parting about 20 small calves out on the road, drove them straight into the corral.  Rodeo was about 2000 head and had a very good lock in.  7 yuntas worked and marked 594 by 1 oclock.  Had on rodeo Estancia and locked in by 2.40 P.M. and  The rodeo was about 800 head and marked 261 by 4.30 and took them back to rodeo afterwards.  The men worked very well and quitely.–  Sent 7 peones gente to sleep at puesto to ‘recojer’ rodeo del medio.–  Weather was cloudy, but fresh south wind grand for working.–  Butchered cow in morning and another in afternoon.–

— 12 Apr. —

Had on rodeo del medio, about 2500 3500 head.  Parted out about 100 cows with small calves, and after a deal of work got the rodeo to corral.  about 50 calves got away. got away.  Locked in by 10.20 A.M. and finished by at 2.20 marked 540, small ‘parision’ in this rodeo.  8 yuntas worked.  Took cattle back to old rodeo south of house in evening so as to juntar them with calves.  Another fine day for working, little warm at noon.  S.E wind.—

— 13 Apr. —

Page image.

“Mosquitoes occupy an important place in our daily life...”

Had on Salado rodeo about 1500 and locked them in after about 30 escaping.  marked 445 and 3 tambera calves by 12 o’’clock.  Damp day and some mist.  Gente want to sleep at Puesto to work in south ensenada tomorrow.  Casimiro Gay was here in afternoon.  Alambrador bro’t mail from Calchaqui.–  G. Martin here.  Broke two calves.  Butchered one cow here, and another at puesto.

— 14 Apr. —

Had on tapera rodeo about 2000 splendid condition and after parting out about 100 small calves locked them into corral after some trouble.  Marked 560 calves by 2.30 P.M.  Broke 4.  Corral very hard and gente rough.–  Left cattle out again in evening.–  Was some mist & drizzle tonight.  Hilario Saavedra was here.–

— 15 Apr. —

Rodeo of Mistolar 1200 about.  Gave very little trouble to lock in.  Had parted out about 50 cows with small calves.  Marked 398 by 11 A.M.  Broke one.  Men worked very well.  Heavy rain when finished and left out.–  Stop work until go over to Loma.  Pedro Gomez came with 50 potros of Morenos Cañada de Gomez and 43 horses from La California (2 madrinas) 8 days journey.  Hilario Saavedra here for the night, wants to buy the señueleros for 3500 apiece.–
Weather still looks damp, but not enough rain fell to juntar water.  G. Martin here still.

— 16 Apr. —

Had good heavy rain off and on nearly all day.  Very good but not enough for the esteros to juntar water.  Hilario Saavedra bought 16 señueleros (black) & madrina which were here, (the other 4 are missing) at $35 .00 also 2 novillos of Zalazar’s mark at same price and took them off.–  Arreglared with most of the gente of marcacion who left.–  4 days work each.—  J. Robson came in afternoon & stops night.  Also G. Martin here yet.

— 17 Apr. —

Muggy sort of a day but no rain.  Some hunters in 2 canoas killed a pig of Frakes and he cobrared 12.00.  G. Martin left.–  Robson here had sail in morning.–  Entregared 12 potros to Elias to break in of Morenos mark.  2 are for Elias and Felis.  No work going on.  Lots of mud about.—

— April 18 / 97. —

Sunday.  Another drizzly damp day.  Butchered cow T.  Robson parted 8 potros of Morenos mark @ $35.00 and Camilo Bergara 1 @ 35.00.
Mr Gay & Casimiro, & 2 sisters and Mifs Defagot came in trap and we went with them and had picnic in Palmar, & boat ride etc.
Miguel sent his wife (Bernarda) to her home.  Can’t find pecheros tonight.

— 19 Apr. —

Another beastly muggy day with some rain but not enough to juntar water.  Nothing going on.  Miguel recorrered over in monte near Juans puesto.  J. Martin was here.  Also J. Fillen pd order on Marty $243.00 for cattle bo’t in January.–  Indian on foot tracks in monte.

— 20 Apr. —

Miguel and 3 peones recorrered way outside to collect cattle but did not find any.  Encargared Nicolas Gallegos to bring the mares from San Pedro, offered him $50.00.  J. Wilson & Lasaro Cardoso of San Cristobal & Polvadero came at noon and stop the night.  Showed them up to Palmar lake.–  Strong south wind, but not cleared up yet.–

— 21 Apr. —

Marked the horses that came from down south the other day 42.  Lent the horses and potros (29) to Baldomeros to take care of down there.–  Wilson and Lazaro left for Martins’s.  Butchered old cow in afternoon.  Sun out at last after 112 days damp weather.  But rain was not sufficient to juntar water in esteros, but camp has improved a lot, especially in Palmar.–

— 22 Apr. —

Mail came last night.  Filling up around place.  A recorred up towards puesto Guampita & saw fencers at Juan’s puesto, they had cut very small posts.  Miguel recorrered down towards Vargas & Baldomeros.  Had slight drizzle last night & looks like more rain.

— 23 Apr. —

Trodevano began plowing (for alfalfa).  Had on rodeo Potrero.  Very fine day.  G. Martin was here.  Fine drying day.  Nothing going on.  Tomas Bergara came back to work with family.

— 24 Apr. —

Miguel and gente left to repuntar the cattle in the monte, so as to recoger rodeo de la ‘Loma’ tomorrow to mark.–  Strong south wind in forenoon and cold weather, looks like going to have frost.  Frodevano finished plowing and began harrowing.–  No meat today had to hunt for grub; mulitas, duck & goose.–

— 25 Apr. —

Had on rodeo de la Loma and parted out the cows with calves to mark.  Parted out 306 calves of which 2 were tamberas and marked them in puesto corral.  Very good drive & lock in.  Outsiders who worked were Pancho, Elias, Doming, Chamorra, Eduarte, Valiente, Nicolas (gordo) & Felis, on their own horses.  Gente stop at puesto so as to go “recojering” mares to Baldomeros.–  Nicolas Gallegas bro’t the M mares out from San Pedro.  Receive them tomorrow.  Very cold morning but wind changed to north again.  Jorge Däyer and a hide buyer were here today.  No one was at home.  He offered 600for hides.

— 26 Apr. —

Marked and ‘cerdiared’ mares down at Baldomeros – Marked 42 machos 40 hembras 3 mulas.  Marked 18 tambera calves also.  Received the San Pedro mares from Nicolas Gallegas 81 – 1 left on road tired – 2 died at San Pedro, & 12 missing at San Pedro.  J. Todd arrived from down south.–  Counted the mares which entered the corral.  422 with out the San Pedro mares.  Supposed good many are missing.  Fine day for work.  Traded 2 alasan colts to Miguel for Rabicano (cart horse B) and tordillo B

— 27 Apr. —

Indians last night from Juans puesto (monte) 3 mancarones B and 3 from other paisanos there.  From Damasios puesto 5 horses B and 1 horse of Elias from soga.  Quien sabe how many more are stolen.  Sold Juan Aso of San Cristobal 52 hides 600 kilos.  @ 600 10K$360 for which he paid cash.–  Tomas arreglared cart to go to Calchaqui tomorrow.–  Butchered old cow in afternoon & bro’t oxen from potrero.  G. Martin was here.

— 28 Apr. —

Had on rodeo Potrero and parted out the calves of the old cows and took them to Estancia and marked them 87.  Juan the paisano says indians who stole went towards Cueva del Tigre.  Sent 2 carts to Calchaqui for stores & maiz.  Tomas, Domingo & Cornelio went.  Sent some Anta & 2 Carpincho skins to Arzuaga, Rosario.  Also libro Mayor to Carlos Rohr so that he sends it to Rosario.  North wind & warm.—

— 29 Apr. —

Cleaned well out in morning.  Miguel & 4 peones went to part at Gay & Defagots.  Warm day.—
Looks stormy.–  J. Barga reports indians about down Calchaqui way.  Froidevano plowing.–

— 30 Apr. —

Todd & A went over to Casimiro’s marcacion, & came at night.–  Miguel parted 7 animals out.  Fernando Gay here for night.  Warm day and looks like rain.  Nothing going on here.  Frodevano plowing.

May, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

— May 1 —

Carts came back from Calchaqui late at night this evening, bringing stores etc.  Miguel recorrered down to Baldomeros puesto.  G. Martin was here.  filled up in galpon.  Warm day looks rainy

— 2 May —

Sunday.  Miguel & gente left to part at Martin’s.  Nothing going on.  E.J.S. Watt & Vestern turned up from down south with tropilla for indian expedition.  Foggy morning & hot muggy day.–

— 3 May —

Miguel came back from parting over at Martin’s.  Parted out about 170 rodeo was about 500 head.  Marked 6 calves.  Hot murky day.  Bro’t load of wood from Palmar.–

— 4 May —

Butchered a novillo (bayo) parted from Martin’s. –  Had on Salado rodeo & parted out 20 calves and marked them.  Martin also parted out. –  Casimiro Gay & J. Martin were here for breakfast. –  Very strong north wind.  Looks stormy. –

— May 5 / 97 —

Miguel & gente left to part at the Barra and Media Luna.  Beastly hot north wind.  Nothing going on.  Frodevano harrowing.

— 6 May —

Another very hot day with strong north wind, in evening strong south wind began blowing & cloudy.  Pedro Gomez turned up with cattle he had been reculutaring.  Nothing going on. –  Some of ‘pesebreros’ missng tonight. –

— 7 May —

Pedro Gomez delivered 15 animals of San Pedro cattle.  Butchered one of them.  José Gaillat had prevented him from parting at Dancillas [??].
Watt, Versturn, King & Todd left to hunt over towards Laguna del Perro.  Can’t find pesebre horses.  Strong S.E wind blowing and looks drizzly.

— 8 May —

Still can’t find the 8 ‘pesebreros’.  Miguel not come yet from Media Luna.  Bargas began cross plowing with Frodevano.  Carts 2 came tonight from Calchaqui bringing few supplies.  varillas not come yet.  Fernando Gay here for night.–  Murky day & looks drizzly.

— 9 May —

Sunday.  The pesebreros found at paso Mistolar today.  C. Hay & Foster turned up this afternoon from down south.  looking for cattle to buy.  The hunters came back tonight, killed 3 pigs.  Muggy day.  A goes to Calchaqui tomorrow to see about San Pedro cattle etc.

— 12 May —

A came back from Calchaqui. encargared the juez to settle with Gaillat about cattle left at Morsillas.–  Corresponded with M. Duran about expedition.  Miguel came from apartes.  bro’t 146 vacunas and 36 yeguarizas – marked 7 calves and 3 potrillos (1 macho 2 hembras)  G. Yeates came yesterday and stops until tomorrow.  Todd, King, Watt, R Versturme, C Hay, R. Foster, Yeates, Mike, & myself to grub.–  Weather looks chageable. –

— 13 May —

[Author not: Alfred ?]

Butchered big lame novillo for hide.  C. Hay & R. Foster left for the barra to see about cattle and go on from there.  Also G. Yeates left.  Comes again after indian xpedition.  Hot fine day and looks rainy.  Tomas & cart went to bring wire & alfa seed from Guampita.

— 14 May —

[Author: Alfred]

A. & Todd were down at Damasio and marked 13 tambera calves and Elia marked his own claves (about 20)  Miguel and gente left to part at J. Martin’s tomorrow.  Ramon (Harteneck’s capataz Capnme [??] to go out on xpedition.  Hot day and looks like rain.  Casimiro Gay was here.–

— 15 May —

Were up at Martin’s rodeo, parted out about 200 animals.  King lost his horse & saddle in camp.  shooting geese.  Tomas & cart arrived bringing 14 rolls white wire (& left 1 roll at Guampita fence to finish in estero. & 2 bags alfa seed. & cartridges & tea.–  Very hot day & looks like rain.–

— May 16 –/97 —

Sunday.  Marked 3 calves of the cattle parted yesterday.  Mail came from Calchaqui, no news from Miguel Duran.  King’s horse found.

— 17 May —

Sent Chechs to Calchaqui with packmule for encargaes for xpedition & mail,  Butchered and charquiared animal for trip.  Cut hide for sogas.  Sowing alfa seed.  Muggy weather.  J. Fellon here.

— 18 May —

Making preparations for going outside.  Checho came back no news from Miguel Duran.  Start tomorrow on our hunt, as indian trip evidently a failure.  Miguel went down to bring horses up from Baldomeros puesto.  Finished sowing alfa seed.–

June, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

— June 19 —

[The hunt took place NNE of Los Palmares.  See maps: "North Santa Fé Names & Places" (north center of map), and Alfred's hunt in 1902 (east side of map).]

Came back today from our hunt, had been gone just a month. –   Had left here May 19 – Alfredo, Todd, King, J.E.S. Watt, Vesturme, H. Vargas, Wenceslado, & Juan Palmar from here, and Casimiro Gay, Gros, Juan & F. Bellos, Antonio & Bedean, from Monte Aguara composed the party, taking 54 horses & mules.  We went up the east coast of Golondrina until we were stopped by the water and had to come back again.  We were nearly opposite estacion Ombu and had marched from Canton Tuviano a whole day in the water and had to come back again.-  At the Palo Pelado we found 10 oxen belonging to W. Stevens and evidently left by the indians who must have heard us shooting, but we lost them about 3 leagues further on, and on way back looked for them again, but not found them.–  Watt left us to come down when his horses tired when we got back to infront of Golondrina station.–

Marched as follows
19th May. Estero Las Tejas.–
20, Laguna Dulce Morells.–
21.  "  at Susnati,
22.  "  frente Martin Garcia
23.  Palo Pelado (costa)
24.  "  "  found oxen
25   "  "
26 - 2nd point N of Palo Pelado  found a novillito
27  N/side of cañaditalost bullocks. South of lake
28  point of monte. southnorth of lake–
29. Corral at Palmar corral.
30  ½ league N of corral.
31.- N side of Cañada W 2 leagues of Golondrina
1 June - "  "  ditto
2. Canton Tuviano – nearly all water
3. isleta point of monte N of Tuviano.all water
4. back to Canton Tuviano (all water.
5.     "  "
6. Cañada by station Golondrina.
7.   "   "    "    "  Watt left.-
8.   "   "    "    "
9.   "   "    "    "
10. Palmares ½ league N of corral.
11. Point monte made Toldos.–
12.   "   "   S of lake.–  lost bullock @ camp
13. N of Palo Pelado
14. Costa.  Palo Pelado.
15 June.-  Costa.  Palo Pelado.
16 Susnatí
17. opposite Morells.
18 Paso Cueva del Tigre.
19.– Home Sweet Home.–

Bag.  5 ciervo, 6 guasunchos, 4 gama, 1 aguara, 3 lion, 9 antbear 4 young antbear,- 6 pigs, 3 cat.9 ostrich Total 50 also 6 rattlesnakes.  Had fine weather outside, xcept yesterday & today when a temporal is blowing.

— June 20 —

Bellos & compañeros left for Monte Aguara.  Bad muggy drizzly day.  Ewaldino had killed a fine tiger.

— 21 June —

Miguel left to recorrer towards Guampita.  Fernando Gay goes to finish alambrado.  Muggy again.

— 22 June —

Varga harrowing basura in chacra.  Butchered old cow.  Miguel came back.  Tied in two frison horses in cart after regularing harness.  Very hard frost and clear weather.  Tremendous manga of langosta settled in camp.  SE to N.W.-  Yoking up some novillos to tame.

— 23 June —

Very hard frost.  Did not seem to do any harm to locusts.  Vesturme went down to Robsons.  A.  & Todd go tomorrow to Las Rosas.

1897 - Qtr.3

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August, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

July August 5 / 97 —

A. came back from La California 1 mo 12 days away.  Had been over at Landa & B.A. and La California.  Todd had come back from B.A. and had been canoeing with King killed
 
and yesterday had gone out again.  Camp looks very dry, but both Salado and Calchaqui are crecida.  Cattle are thin and horses very.  Had lots of cold frosts and camp is completely burned by them.—
Lots of locusts had been here, but lots had died & gone to the woods.  Cattle trying to get into monte and towards arroya del Perro. –   Vesturme is down at Robsons. –   Carlos Rohr Carlos Harteneck and Leinenweber had been here last night yesterday but went away today.  Wendroth is here since the 31st   Weather hot & N.E.  wind. –  5 novillos tamed by Tomas.  Pancho el rengo taming novillos at Damasias.  Peones had gone up recorrering in monte came back tonight.

— 6 Aug. —

Horse cart went to Calchaqui.  Frodevano and Frakes went.  Sent the lion to Mifs Tattie Dickinson.  Frakes takes bacon to sell in Calchaqui.  A & Wendroth were up at Bargas (Palmar).  Fine rain began at noon and continues tonight. –

— 7 Aug. —

Fine rain last night, and splendid day.  Could not be better for camp.  Had rodeo on in potrero and butchered a cow of Julians mark which was lost of tropa last year.  A.  and Wendroth were up at Martin’s for dinner.

— August 8 / 97 —

Sunday.  Cart came back from Calchaqui bringing A‘s things, potatoes etc.  Cloudy day SE wind.  Miguel recorrered down towards Michelats.

— 9 Aug. —

Had another rain last night, slow drizzly but penetrating.  Nothing going.  recorriendo for lost hides.

— 15 Aug. —

Alfredo, Wendroth and boy (Felipe) came back last night after 3 days recorriendo up to puesto Morel (Cueva del Tigre) near Zarnocita and Laguna del Perro.  Did not find Todd & King who are out in canoe.  Did not kill any thing saw 3 ciervo 2 aguara.  Indians stole on other side of Salado passing Fortin Union.  Bravo‘s capataz taking novillos to tame and Domingo Arivani young bullocks to work.  Lucas took 22 mares up to Vargas to tame and Rubio took 3. – 
Vargas plowing, and Frodevano ill (guess mañero).  Weather fine and good for grass.  Verstume came today from Las Muelles.–

— 16 Aug. —

Seems the indians had taken Elias tropilla and a manada of mares of Casimiro, also my rabicano O.  Domingo arivani takes 24 young bullocks to work (2 of Cabrera, 2 de Zalazar. 20 B) and Valentin Brava takes 32 novillos (5 Cabrera 27 B) to work.  Warm morning south wind in afternoon.

— 17 Aug. —

Elias campiared his horses on other side stolen.  His horse (Frodevano’s) also drowned in paso.  A, Versturme & Vendroth recorrered over to Juans & Rubios puestos.  Cattle in monte looking well.  South wind and cold weather.  Camp picking up very slowly.

— 18 Aug. —

Miguel left to recorrer at Laguna de los Perros. –  Butchered a cow  Mr Petre, Bennett, Dionisio Collins, & peon & tropilla turned up this afternoon and stopped the night.  J. Martin stops night on way from administration Harteneck.  Coldish day and looks like rain.–

— 19 Aug. —

Drizzle and temporal night and day.  Visitors still here.  Getting cold.—

— 20 Aug. —

Took the visitors & showed them the Palmar.  Mr Petre is out on behalf of the share holders of Land Co.  They stop the night.  It was a fine day.  Miguel came back from Laguna Gallareta – found no cattle xcept some mixed with Julian’s.

— 21 Aug. —

Visitors left in morning.  Butchered cow O.  Nothing going on.  Hard frost (very).

— 22 Aug. —

Sunday.  Versturme left for Robson’s.  Nothing going on.  Frost again but fine warm day.–

— 23 Aug. —

Fine warm day N.E wind camp improving.  Harrowing & drawing furrows for maiz.  Had indian scare in afternoon, as one of the men (Rogelio) said he saw 4 on foot costa Salado.  Went down on other side of Salado but found nothing.

— 24 Aug. —

Fine rain last night & this morning, not much but good for camp.  Strong south wind set in and getting cold again.  Nothing going on.  Transplanting Bermuda grass.

— 27 Aug. —

Alfredo and Wendroth came back from the lagunas Cura (3 days) killed one ciervo and saw no cattle.  Lakes full of water.  Todd & King also came back from their 23 days canoeing trip to Sarnocita lake.  bagged 2 ciervo 4 jabali 4 varzino & 4 Corvata pigs, 1 aguara 1 guasuncho, 1 ostrich, 1 zorro 2 Rattel or large huron, 3 hurones.–  Had good time.  2 carts went 25th to Calchaqui.  Zerafino went today to  "   [Calchaqui] to get cured.  Casimiro Gay stops night on way to Calchaqui.  Frost this morning and yesterday slight.  Fine weather.

— 28 Aug. —

Nothing going on.  Rogelio came back from Lucer says he saw 4 indians near laguna Baldomero.  Carts came back from Calchaqui bringing stores but no maiz.  Wendroth went to Muelles.–  Large manga of locusts passed & stop night west of house.  East wind looks bad.

— 29 Aug. —

Sunday.  Rained bit in morning, muggy day.  Wendroth & Versturme came from Muelles, go canoeing up north inn a day or two.  Juan brought young aso [??].–

— 30 Aug. —

Temporal blowing.  Santa Rosa but not very cold.  Planting melons & sandias.  Miguel recorrered up to bara Calchaqui.  C. Gay stops the night.

— 31 Aug. —

Wendroth & Verstrume left in canoe for up north for a 3 weeks hunting trip.  Alfredo and Todd recorrered the Salado southward & shot a carpincho.  Miguel and Checho went to juntar the horses on other side of Salado.  Arreglaring and planting batata.  Cleaning up basura.

September, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

— Sept 1 —

Temporal blowing all day.  Drizzly.  Miguel came back from Las Muelles, found our horses all right.

— 2 Sep. —

Another muggy day and little drizzle.  Butchered San Pedro cow.–  Nothing going on.  Skinned 2 cows impantanared.

— 3 Sep. —

Another temporal day strong south wind and looks like clearing up.  Skinned several cows, good weather for camp but bad for cattle.  Cook and several peons down with influenza.

— 5 Sep. — Sunday.–

A and Todd came back from Palmar del Monte..  (went yesterday) recorriendo killed one guasuncho.  Fine weather again.  N wind.  Large manga of locusts passed today.  N. to S. Laguna Dulce

Sept. 1897
— 6 —

Had on potrero rodeo and antregared A. Ponce 2 novillos (of Calveras mark) to break in & also parted out about 40 animals, mostly claves.  Nothing xtra going on.  S.W. wind locusts passed.

— 7 Sep. —

A. entregared Ponce 27 redomon bullocks from puesto Mistolar making 29 bullocks Aristobulo Ponce takes to work.  He entregars December or after.  Pancho had redomonared 36 (and entregared to us.  Miguel and gente recorrered.  Skinned two cows and butchered one.  Frost this morning.  Cloudy day S.E wind.

— 8 Sep. —

Alfredo was up at Martin‘s and borrowed 2 bags of maiz.  Cart left for Calchaqui taking Todds things.  It was a beautiful spring day.  Very slight frost.  From 12 to 2 an immense manga of locusts passed and settled in alfa.  Had hard work to drive them out.  Done harm.  Wind N.W. to S.W.

— 10 Sep. —

Alfredo came back from Calchaqui had gone to see Todd off yesterday.  Dispatched cart.  Segundo cleared off from his puesto after his wife.  North wind and hot.  Locusts flying about.  Reports of them as far as Manuel Galvez.

— 11 Sep. —

Hot day strong north wind.  D. Collins came from San Cristobal.  Cart came from Calchaqui bringing maiz, etc.

— 12 Sep. —

North wind.  hot.  Sunday.

— 13 Sep. —

North wind, very hot and dry.

— 14 Sep. —

Weather changed SW.  wind, dry.

— 15 Sep. —

Temporal began blowing.  Mist in morning.  Strong south wind.

— 16 Sep. —

Muggy sort of a day, but fine for camp.  A recorrered down at Paso Mistolar and about.  Collins left again for San Cristobal

— 17 Sep. —

King was up at Martin‘s to make arrangement about helping to make a recojida of his hacienda.–  Ramon from Martin‘s was here also.  Skinned 3 today.  Butchered cow.

— 19 Sep. —

Sunday.  Strong south wind. (dusty)  Miguel, King & two peones came back from Lagunas Cura where they had gone yesterday to help Martin recorrer and bring down cattle.  Richards from La Blanca came and stops the night.–

— 20 Sep. —

Hard frost in morning.  Alfredo and Richards took a turn up Palmar.–  Butchered a cow.– East wind.  Dry and wants rain.

— 21 Sep. —

Richards left for La Blanca again.  Berli passed with a tropita of 40 reses from Casimiro Gay for Vera.  Frost.

— 22 Sep. —

Revocando on house.  Another hard frost.  J. Bellos was here.

— 23 Sep. —

Another frost.  Fine day E wind.  The 2 carts came with maiz from Domingo‘s puesto where Hartenecks had sent it.–  Butchered cow.–  Hilario Saavedra stops night looking for reces.  A recorrered down as far as Baldomeros.

— 24 Sep. —

Sent cart to bring up the hides from puesto Rubio 44.  Miguel went to part over at G. Dällers with Ramon gente who are making a troop.  Warm day.

— 25 Sep. —

A. recorrered down southwards.  Warm day.  Ramon locked troop of 100 novillos he had bought from G. Däller @ $26.00  Parted out 14 of  B  (reculuta).  G. Däller stops night.  Skinned 3 animals.–

— 26 Sep. —

Sunday.  A was up at Martin’s.  Fine warm day.  E wind.

— 27 Sep. —

Miguel recorrered up to Lagunas Dulce.  Cut alfa.  Warm day.  E wind.

— 28 Sep. —

A recorrered W of alambrado towards Guampita.  Wendroth & Westurme came back from their canoeing trip.  Had been as far as Susnati, bagged 4 jabali, 1 aguara, 3 zorros, 6 coati 1 guasuncho 2 gamas.  Had good time.–
E wind warm.

— Sept 29 —

Miguel went to juntar the caballado at Las Muelles with two peones.  He saw an indian in monte towards laguna del Perro had two shots at him.
Robson came in afternoon & stops night  – 30 –.  E wind & warm.
Got in alfa in afternoon & Frakes took cart to bring bacon to send to Calchaqui.

— 30 Sep. —

Mail came.  Sent Frodevano to Calchaqui with horse cart to bring stores.  Butchered thin cow.  Miguel came back.  Sprained his instep.  Robson left.  E wind warm.

1897 - Qtr.4

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October & November, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

— Oct 1.  —

Miguel and gente left to part at the GuampitA. Frodevano came back from Calchaqui bringing few stores and the mail.  Broke two demejuanas vino.  J. Martin stops the night.  E wind warm and getting very dry. 

— 2 Oct.  —

Ewaldino reports Indian signs going from Palmar lake towards Salado.  Miguel came back from Julians rodeo parted out about 200.  Cattle in good condition.  Wendroth left for Rosario.  E wind fine day. 

— 3 Oct.  —

Sunday.  Nothing going on.  Butchered cow.  Warm day; looked stormy last night.  A was over at Casimiras.  Miguel & gente left to part at Martin’s, begin tomorrow.

— 4 Oct.  —

Hot day.  SE wind.  Marked 14 of the aparte  Parted over at Martin’s.  Had on point on rodeo, & parted out about 400 of ours.  Afterwards parted out about 200 of Martin’s from a point of about 400 of ours.  Helped a chap pass over about 25 mares  F  across the Salado on way from Algarrobal.  Locked the ‘‘aparte’ in corral tonight.  Report Juan (indio) found a couple of indian horses in monte.

— 5 Oct. —

Marked 14 calves of aparte cattle, and drove them across the Calchaqui.  Butchered fat young cow.  Gente left again for Martin’s to part again tomorrow.  Hilario Saavedro stops night.  Also young Villalba who comes to receive money from the former.  Hot day.  A goes tomorrow to San Cristobal.

— 10 Oct. —

Alfredo came back last night from San Cristobal.  Met C. Jewell Wilson, & Hornsby at Robsons on the 6th & next day all went down together to San Cristobal.  They want $250 gold for this years rent per league.  Wrote to J.B. advising to & write to see accept to give time to take cattle away.  Hard nuts to deal with.
Indians have been prowling about a good deal last few days.
Seca getting very bad and weather very hot with E winds blowing continually.  Miguel parted again about 300 at Martins, and marked 4 calves.  Had on rodeo Salado and also marked 52 calves.  Morel of Chilcas passed the night with a tropita of reses for Vera, bought from Bellos.

— 11 Oct. —

King & Westurme left to camp down towards the Lucero to hunt nutria. Miguel recorrered towards laguna del Perro.  Found some saddle gear of indians.  Cleaned well out.  Gente huntaring yeguada south of Baldomeros – to capar tomorrow.  Fearful hot strong North wind.  98° in house.

— 12 Oct. —

Capared cohudos at Baldomeros.  Elias cut 33.  Wind changed to south which blew fearfully strong all day.  Some thunder but xpect the seca will prolong. Lent horse cart to Martin so can take Mrs Troffer [??] to Calchaqui.

— 13 Oct. —

J. Martin, mother sister & McCormick stop night on way to Calchaqui.–  Rained last night and this forenoon.
Alfre    14  

— Nov. 11. —

Alfredo came back from down south.  Rohr and Eidel came along. latter to bargain for hides.  Indians had stolen day before yesterday morning a point of cattle from Martín about 40 head and a few days before 100 head,  and this evening, Miguel, Frakes, Ewaldino, Juan Gonzales, & Flores left with 3 horses each to help Martin get them back.  Camps looking very well as had lots of rain and esteros are all full of water.–  Had given rodeos generales, and all the neighbors except Michelot & J. Sanches turned up.  marked 249 calves of the different rodeos since Oct 14th.

319 calve

— Nov 1897 —

Alfredo had left here on the 15th and arrived at La California on the 16th  Went again to Rosario on the 26th – had our quarterly meeting J.B. – WB – & AB present.–  On the 30th went to Santa Fe, & met King and Versturme there same day, also Robson who was brought in from San Cristobal with both wrists broke, on the Nov 1st left for San Cristobal to make contract.  Lee had to await telegram from England & awaited until the 9th and then went to Santa Fé & 10th to Calchaqui
William & Johnnie saw Jewell at Las Petacas & made arrangements to lease Palmares for another 6 years at $250 gold per year, but Lee awaits telegram ratifying bargain England.

— 12 Nov. —

Went with Rohr & Eidel to Palmar & back.  Made trade with Eidel to sell him the hides put in Calchaqui at $7.00 per 10K al barrer.  ½ K distarra [??].  cerda 9.00 per 10 K.  cuero potros @ $3.25 each all barrer.  Sent Checha to Campiar horses Muelles.

— 13 Nov. —

Finished plowing between corn, & began cutting young alfa which is fine.–  Hot day.  Cleaned cerda, etc.

— 14 Nov. —

Sunday.  Carlos Rohr & Deirel [Decipel ??] left again Calchaqui.  Got carts (2) ready to go tomorrow to Calchaqui and loaded up the hides cow 204 including 9 to be loaded a pass.  11 horse hides & 5 bags hair.–  Very hot day.
Checho came back.  Could not find the horses.

— 15 Nov. —

Alfredo was over at Martin’s.  G.M reports indians only stealing about 30 head of cattle.  Carts left (3) for Calchaqui with hides etc.  Tomas, Camba Benites, Sserdo [Surdo ?] & Chocolo went.  Butchered a sheep from puesto.  Alfredo was up costa laguna in afternoon.  Finished cutting new alfa. Very hot day N wind & looks like tormento.

— 16 Nov. —

Alf.  was at puesto.  mail came.  Butchered cow in afternoon.  Checho went to Villalba to “revisar” rodeo.  Miguel & men came back from following indians who stole Martin’s cattle up.  Followed up one day from Charrua, but had to go back same night to Charrua on account of scarcity of water.–  Indians only managed to get away with about 27 animals (mostly small) as 40 or 50 more got away from them.  It was a very hot day with strong north wind.

— 17 Nov. —

Another very hot day.  Strong north wind & lightening tonight.  Had on rodeo de la Loma in afternoon.  2000 on rodeo, capared a few bulls.  Cattle pelacharing [noisy, restless ??].

— 18 Nov. —

Miguel went to Vera to take out guias for tropas about to send down.
Got together and hauled the new alfa.–  Another hot day and threatning.  Juan Basco, hunting garza costa laguna had his mare stolen.  Juan Gonzales also reports 3 indians on foot in monte.

— 19 Nov. —

Had a tormento and rain from 3 to 7 A.M.  Fine cool day.  Fine for camp which could not be better.  Carts came back from Calchaqui in afternoon, bringing 2692 K maiz, yerba, four, tobac, etc., and encargos.  Mare of Juan Basco turned up, it had got loose by itself.

— 20 Nov. —

Had on rodeo in potrero and butchered old cow.  A. was at Martin’s.  Hauled off new alfa (and weeds) to burn.  Miguel came back from Vera, archivado mark B and bro’t pasé for troop of novillos.  Also bro’t telegram from J.B. not to send novillos, as big seca down south.  Here camp could not be better.  Lot of Garza toward Palmar.

— 21 Nov. —

Sunday.  Gente coming together to go with tropa.  Not sending now.  A. going down south tomorrow about Santa Fé Land Co.  Fine day.

— 26 Nov. —

A came back from Rosario today..  Met Johnnie there.  Decide to let Jewell arrange our affairs for us.–  ré Land Co.–  22nd slept in train twixt S.Fé & Rosario.–  23rd Rosario.  24th train to SFé  25th Calchaqui.  Had a big seca down south but began raining 24th & J. sent a telegram to send tropa.  Elias Miguel parted out today and yesterday at Martin’s.  parted out 704 marked animals.  Also parted out all intrusos in potrero.
Dionisio Collins & J. Wilson were here last night.
Martin’s move off next week.–
Had shower night of 24th and today.  Cut alfalfa today & yesterday.–

— 27 Nov. —

Had a fine rain this forenoon.  Camp could not be better.–
Gente here for tropa work.  Took cattle parted from Martin to other side of Calchaqui.  Warm afternoon.

— 28 Nov. —

Sunday–  Bro’t senueleros from potrero and butchered a fat old cow.  A was down at Baldomeros.  Eulalia had cleared out last night.  Had a stormy day and tormento in evening but little rain.  Piling alfa.

— 29 Nov. —

Began parting tropa. Had on rodeo algarrobal (about 3000) and parted out 294.  rodeo in good order.–  In afternoon had on rodeo Salado (about 1000) and parted out 75.–  rodeo also good order lot of fat dry fat cows.–  15 men on our horses worked.–  Had slight shower last night (rained hard at puesto) and a fine day to work.–

— 30 Nov. —

Had on Estancia rodeo and parted out 212 novillos and in afternoon parted out 142 from Rodeo del Medio.  Locked in at South Ensenada late.  to dispatch troop in morning.  Fine day to work.–

December, 1897

[Author: Alfred]

— Dec. 1 – / 97 —

Alfredo went down to Ensenada to dispatch the tropa, 718 novillos (1 of Vargas & 4 old señueleros one killed) and 8 vaquillas to butcher.
last night.  Elias (capataz) Patricio Rogelio, Candida, Ayala, Pato, Varga & son, Felix, & Valiente went.  Gave him $80.– & $16.– to pay xtra peon.  Still to pay $22– to xtra peones.–  Miguel parted at Martin’s about 50 animals.  Cool morning fine day.  Frakes bro’t mail.

— 2 Dec. —

All hands went to help Martin move his cattle across the Salado.  Tomas, Chocolos, Flores, Juan (puesto), Frakes, Miguel, Felis (paisano).  Had a great deal of work & did not finish passing. Fine day.  Jose Michelud & gente came to part.

— 3 Dec. —

Miguel helped Martin pass his cattle again, in which he succeeded at last.  A. was at Lucero to see Eulalia about going back to her husband.  Was very hot day and looks like tormento.–  Barga and Trodevato carpiando in chacra which is fearfully full of weeds, but maiz etc. in good order.–

— 4 Dec. —

Had on rodeo Algarrabal in forenoon and Salado in afternoon.  Michelud parted out about 25.  Marked 14 calves of 1st rodeo & capared some ajeno bulls–  Tomas went & brought his wife from Damasia’s.  Hot day and looks like rain.–

— 5 Dec. —

Sunday.—  Had on rodeo del Estancia this morning.  Michelud parted about 20.  We marked 11 calves and capared some bulls.  It was a very hot day, and no rain, but camp is fine.  Nothing new.–  Trodevato shooting Garza (chica).

— 6 Dec. —

Had on Salado rodeo.  Michelud parted out about 75.  We parted out markedmarked 25 orechano calves to mark and 21 bulls to capar.  Miguel took them to puesto to lock in and work.  It was a fearful hot day 98° in house, and N wind.  Cleaned out well again.

— 7 Dec. —

Had on Mistolar rodeo marked 24 calves in forenoon and rodeo Loma in afternoon.–  Marked 6 calves and capared bulls.  Michelud parted out about 100 animals.–  It was another fearful hot day 97° – Wind in afternoon turned to east.  Looks seca.–
Sykes turned up from Carmen in evening. Bad trip. —

— 8 Dec. —

Had on rodeo tapera and marked 23 calves.  Michelud did not part all of his, altogether he took about 500 animals. we marked 102 calves in the paradas since the 3rd.  It was a fearful hot day 98° but in after noon a dry storm came up and freshened off.  Butchered cow.–

— 9 Dec. —

Another very hot day 95°–
Sent 3 men to Baldomeros to help part at Michelubs tomorrow.

— Dec 10 / 97. —

Another fearful hot day & strong N wind.  98°.–  In night storm came up and no rain.  9.P.M.  Cut alfa and piled it up in afternoon.  Bro’t 2 loads of wood.

— 11 Dec. —

Cooled off today but no rain.  Rained at Baldomeros.
Baldomero came with 81 animals he parted at Micheluds.  Sold an overo negro novillo @ 30.– & a red cow @ 2500 both of Peichos countermark to Hilario Saavedra who was passing with some novillos from Fernando Villalba.  Fine day.  Alfa too wet to bring in.—

— 12 Dec. —

Sunday.  Had slight shower last night.–  Hot day.  Murky.–  Gente coming together to make tropa tomorrow.  Pinto.

— 13 Dec. —

Began making tropa of dry cows or with marked calves.  Men who worked were Pinto, 2 men from Lucille, Camba, Chamorra, & Camilos brother.–  parted 68 cows from Algarrobal rodeo in morning and capared bulls afterwards.–  In afternoon parted from Rodeo Estancia 81.  Fearful hot day to work.  Rolled up skins to send to Rosario to Tannery —
3 tiger 7 puma, 3 guasuncho, 1 gama, 18 aguara, 10 gato onza, 3 lobo del monte, 6 gato montes, 5 cuati, 1 chanchito, 1 cucharon  Total 58 skins.–
Also traded Sykes, 6 gato onza skins
Butchered fat cow
for 1 pipe, 1 knife, & 4 lobo skins.  Also mañador for snake skin 12 ft or over, & sobre A puesto & sinchon for flask.  Sykes leaves tonight for Carmen, also Serafina & wife go to Calchaqui with cart to bring out encargas.–
G. Martin turned up tonight.  Had put about 50 head of his cattle in potrero which he had found outside.

— 14 Dec. —

Had on rodeo del Medio in morning and parted out 109.–  And in afternoon parted out 73 from Salado rodeo.–  Also 2 from tamberas, making 333 so far.–  Aristobulo Ponce, Rocha, & Aguilche also worked.  Very stormy day but no rain.–  Ramon here looking for stray animals of Don Carlos.

— 15 Dec. —

Had on Mistolar rodeo and parted out 117 cows for tropa.  Worst rodeo of lot & most old cows.  In afternoon had on rodeo Loma about 1200 and parted out 37 cows.  old & bad colours with last years calves or dry.  as we have been doing in all of the rodeos.–  Stormy day but only had slight shower in afternoon.–

— 16 Dec. —

Had on rodeo tapera and parted out 104 cows and marched with tropa and passed Salado by old tajamar without any trouble.–
Total troop 584 cows, & 8 vaquillas negros to kill. (1 last night)  Gave Pintos $50.– for xpenses.  Pinto (capataz), Aristobula Ponce, Pilar Bergara, Roque Juarez, Luis Ojedo, Luciano Duarte, Agustín Velasquez, & Juan Gonzales 11.  go.  Sent Agustin to Calchaqui for guía and pasé.  Good troop of cows, and the rodeos will look in better colours gradually.–
Fine day, pity did not rain more.

— 17 Dec. —

Ceferino came this morning early from Calchaqui with cart, also Juan Adler, bro’t mail & few necesarias.–  Had on rodeo tapera for Michelos parted about 250 animals and did not finish.  Was fine day.  N.E wind.

— 28 Dec. —

A. came back midnight (last) from Costa – he had gone there on the 19th and paid a visit to the Hopes.  Spent Xmas there.  Had good rain 20th night also on the 25th.  Improved camps considerable.  19th Calchaqui. 20 Alejandra, 21 ditto, 22 ditto 23 Carmen, 24 Alejandra, 25 ditto, 26 Carmen, 27 Home.  Made trade with Hope.  100 toritos @ $30.–  Sent word to Miguel to begin tropa yesterday of novillos.  parted out yesterday 98 from Estancia & Algarrobal rodeos.–  and today 106 from Rodeo Salado & Rodeo del Medio.  Hopes capataz parting out toritos, has about 60 so far.  Elias took troop down delivered Dec. 16th 16 days 715 – 3 short.  (1 got into Robsons camp.)  Sent Ceferino into Calchaqui with horse cart to bring out supplies also visitor for Martin.–  Sent J. Adler away for drunkenness.  (Sod!).  Fine day.–

— 29 Dec. —

Fearful hot day.  Last night there was a row twixt Baldomero & Duarte, at Elias puesto.   " [Baldomero] was chopped on shoulder and ear.  Had on rodeo del Loma morning and Mistolar in afternoon.  Parted out 100 pico novillos from Loma and 100  " " " "  [100 pico novillos from] Mistolar and about 20 toritos for Hope and 1 2½ yr old for Ricketts.–  Very hot day.

— 30 Dec. —

Finished making tropa today.–  Had on rodeo del tapera and parted out 300 novillos.  Counted see nota troop 756 novillos, 7 vaq. to eat on road.– , also 1 bull belonging to Dickenson which goes to Las Lomas.–  Elias takes 8 men & very likely 1 more.  Also dispatched Hopes capataz (Sanchez) with 104 toros & 1 for Ricketts, & 1 novillito to eat on road.—  Fearful hot day.–
Cart came back from Calchaqui bringing Mr Mack and a few stores–.  Alfredo leaves in morning early for Calchaqui and home.
P.S.  Nota.  the tropa had a disparado in night (30th) and took two days to juntar then sending 770, & bull & vaquitas.  Fearful rain.–


© Peter Benitz (Benitz Family)